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Issues Pertaining to the Practice of the Prayers


1-Wiping the feet  ( abdestte ayaklari mesh etmek)

2-Combining the prayers  ( namazlari cem etmek)

3-About the Call  (Adhan) to the prayer (ezan hakkinda)

4-Crossing the hands in the prayer  ( namazda elleri baglamak)

5-Concluding the prayer with three Takbirs ( Namazi 3 tekbirle bitirmek)

6-Prostrating on earth (topragin uzerine secde etmek)

7-Prostrating on the earth of Karbala ( Kerbela topragine secde etmek)

8-Prayers for the dead ( Salat'ul Mayyit)

9-Tarawih Prayers (TeravihNamazi-Cenaze Namazi)




1-Wiping the Feet During Ablution (Wudu')


     The followers of the ahl al-bayt (pbut) follow what the Holy Qur'an teaches them to do during wudu' by wiping their feet instead of washing them since the Holy Qur'an commands: "O you who believe!  When you intend your prayers, wash your faces and your hands from the elbows and wipe (by passing wet hands over) your head and your feet up to the ankles."[145]  Those who practice the washing of their feet during wudu' argue that "your feet" in the Holy Qur'an is linked to washing the face, whereas the followers of the ahl al-bayt argue that "your feet" is linked to rubbing the head and, therefore, they should be wiped but not washed.  In support of the latter view, Ibn 'Abbas narrates from the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf) that they used to rub their feet during the time of the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf).[146]


     Undoubtedly, Muslims at the time of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh&hf) all used to perform wudu' in the same way.   No disagreements occurred between them since the Messenger of Allah (pbuh&hf) was present among them and all the Muslims used to submit their disagreements to him in accordance with the Holy Qu'ran: "And if you differ in anything amongst yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger."[147]  The same situation existed during the time of the first caliph, Abu Bakr (11-13 h.); no disagreements over the performance of wudu' have been reported from that time period.  Similar was the period of the second caliph, 'Umar ibn al-Khattab (13-23 h.) except for the fact that he allowed wiping of the socks rather than the bare feet as the Holy Qur'an directs (5:6).  However, the disagreement regarding the performance of the wudu' began during the time of the third caliph, 'Uthman ibn Affan (23-35 h.) when he began to wash his feet instead of wipe them.[148]  Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, in his book Kanz al-'Ummal [149] mentions that the third caliph 'Uthman ibn Affan was the first to differ during his caliphate in performing the wudu'.  In Sahih Muslim[150] and Kanz al-'Ummal, [151] 'Uthman ibn Affan says that, during his caliphate, some of the companions of the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf) who performed the wudu' differently than himself attributed their practice to the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf).  More than twenty narrations narrated by the third caliph are about the new manner of performing wudu'.  These traditions indicate his establishment of the new method.  Some prominent Muslim historians, such as Ibn Abi al-Hadid al-Mu'tazili,[152] regard this trend as nothing new in the tradition of the third caliph since the third caliph was known for his numerous introductions.  There is a near consensus among the Muslim historians that the third caliph 'Uthman was murdered by Muslim revolutionaries in 35 h. because of political and financial issues.  However, other Muslim historians interpret the third caliph's introductions regarding some of the religious rules during the last six years of his caliphate as a departure from the tradition of the first and second caliphs.  The majority of the Muslims during his caliphate looked at this third caliph as a follower of the first and second caliphs and the implementor of their practices.   Since the third caliph witnessed numerous introductions during the time of the second caliph, and since he saw himself religiously and intellectually not less than his predecessors,[153] he decided to depart from the previous policy and to have an independent opinion regarding different political, financial, and jurisprudential issues, such as washing the feet during wudu'.


    Although some people today consider washing the feet to lead to better cleanliness and hygiene than merely wiping the feet, Allah the Almighty, Who legislated all the acts of worship, including the wudu', is more aware of the advantages and disadvantages of washing or wiping the feet.  It has been narrated that Imam 'Ali ibn Abi Talib (pbuh) said: "If religion were according to human opinion, the bottom of the foot would be more worthy of wiping than the top.  But I saw the Messenger of Allah (pbuh&hf) wiping the top of his foot." [154]



2-Combining the Prayers


     All Muslims agree that there are five mandatory prayers throughout the day and the night, and they also agree that these five daily prayers have specific times in which they must be performed and that combining the prayers is at least sometimes permissible (saying the dhuhr prayer immediately followed by the 'asr prayer, or saying the maghrib prayer immediately followed by the 'isha prayer).  The Maliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali schools of thought agree that combining the prayers while travelleing is permitted, but they do not allow combining the prayers for other reasons.  The Hanafi school of thought permits combining the prayers only on the day of Arafat, whereas the imami Shi'a school of thought allows combining the prayers in all cases - while travelling or not travelling, for any or no specific reason, during war and peace, while the weather is rainy or not rainy, and so on.  The dispute really is as to when exactly the beginnings and ends of the times for these prayers are, and so the dispute must be referred to the Holy Qur'an and the narrations of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (pbuh&hf).


     Three verses in the Holy Qur'an speak of the times for the prayers.  Allah, the Exalted, says: "Perform the prayers from the mid-day till the darkness of the night, and recite the Qur'an in the early dawn.  Verily, the recitation of the Qur'an in the early dawn is ever-witnessed."[155]  "Mid-day" refers to the shared time for the dhuhr and 'asr prayers, "the darkness of the night" refers to the shared time of the mahrib and 'isha prayers, and "early dawn" refers to the fajr prayers.  The Holy Qur'an clearly and simply states that there are three main times for the five daily prayers.  Although the prayers are five, they fall into three main periods of time.  The great Sunni scholar Fakhr al-Din al-Razi understood this interpretation from this verse also.[156]  Of course, the prayers must be done in order; the dhuhr prayers must be performed before the 'asr prayers, and the maghrib prayers must be performed before the 'isha prayers.


     The Holy Qur'an also says: "And perform the prayers at the two ends of the day, and in some hours of the night.  Verily, the good deeds remove the evil deeds.  That is a reminder for the mindful."[157]  The Muslim jurists and Qur'anic commentators agree that this verse refers to the five compulsory prayers and, as the Holy Qur'an states, that it determines the timing of the prayers - namely, three main times, two of them at the "ends of the day" and the third in "some hours of the night."  The first "end of the day" is the time of the morning prayers; the second "end of the day" begins at noontime and ends at sunset, making this time the time for the dhuhr and 'asr prayers; and the "hours of the night" is the third main time in which the maghrib and 'isha prayers should be said and extends from the beginning of the night until midnight.


     A similar division of times is expressed in a third verse: "So bear with patience (O Muhammad) all that they say, and glorify the praises of your Lord before the rising of the sun, and before its setting, and during a part of the night also glorify His praises, and so likewise after the prayers."[158]  As in the previous verse, the jurists and the commentators agree that this verse refers to the times of the five mandatoy prayers and that it divides the time for the prayers into three segments - first, the time from dawn until sunrise which is the time for the dawn prayers; second, the time from noon until sunset, which is the time for the noon and afternoon prayers; and, third, the "part of the night" which extends from after sunset till midnight and which is the time for the evening and night prayers.  "And so likewise after the prayers," according to the commentators, refers either to the nawafil (recommended) prayers or else, specifically, to salat al-layl (the midnight prayers) which are among the highly recommended prayers.


     Imam Bukhari and others report that the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf) used to combine his prayers into these three sections of time: "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh&hf) observed the noon and afternoon prayers together and the sunset and night prayers together without being in a state of fear or journeying."[159]  Imam Muslim narrates the same hadith and adds that when the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf) was asked by Ibn 'Abbas why he authorized combining the two prayers, the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf) replied that he did not want to cause difficulty for his nation.[160]  In the same book, Ibn 'Abbas himself narrates that they used to combine the two prayers during the time of the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf).[161]  So both the Holy Qur'an and the tradition of the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf) indicate clear authorization and permission to combine the two prayers without any particular reason, and Allah the Merciful made His religion easy for the believers.




3-The adhan and "Hayya 'ala khayr al-'amal"

("Come to the best of deeds")



     The entire adhan was taught to the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf) by Allah on the night he ascended to Heaven, and the prayers were made obligatory on him the same night.[162]  The original adhan taught to the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf) contained the phrase "hayya 'ala khayr al-'amal."  However, at the time of the expansion of the Islamic state, the second caliph, 'Umar ibn al-Khattab, thought that this phrase would discourage people from performing jihad (fighting), so he ordered that it be removed from the adhan.  Imam Muslim narrates on the authority of Ibn Mas'ud that the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf) had commanded the Muslims to say in the adhan and iqama "hayya 'ala khayr al-'amal," but once 'Umar assumed authority, he dropped that phrase.[163]  He also says that 'Ali ibn Abi Talib and his followers as well as 'Abdullah, the son of 'Umar, did not drop that phrase.[164]


     'Umar ibn al-Khattab has been narrated to have said: "O people, three things existed during the time of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh&hf) that I prohibit and make unlawful and will punish for: mut'at al-hajj, mut'at al-nisa, and 'hayya 'ala khayr al-'amal'."[165]


     In addition, Malik ibn Anas narrates that once the mu'adhdhin came to 'Umar ibn al-Khattab to announce the morning prayers and found him asleep, so he said to him: "Al-salat khayrun min al-nawm."  ("Prayer is better than sleep")  'Umar liked this sentence, so he ordered that it be put in the adhan for the morning prayers.[166]  Imam Muslim and Abu Dawud concur that this sentence was not part of the adhan during the time of the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf), and Tirmidhi asserts that 'Umar was the one who added it. [167]


     Some people wonder why the Shi'a, in the adhan, after the first two testimonies add "Ashhadu anna 'Aliyan wali Allah."  All the Shi'a jurists and scholars have a consenus that this sentence is not an obligatory part of the adhan.  However, saying it is a tradition that the Shi'a belive began during the time of the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf) on the day of Ghadir after he (pbuh&hf) appointed Imam 'Ali (pbuh) as his successor.  When the Muslims paid their allegience of loyalty to Imam 'Ali (pbuh), Abu Dharr al-Ghifari raised the adhan and added this phrase.  The Muslims came to the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf) and said that they had heard something new.  When the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf) asked what they had heard, they said that they had heard the sentence "ashhadu anna 'Aliyan wali Allah" in the adhan.  The Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf) asked them whether they had not just acknowledged this same phrase to Imam 'Ali (pbuh) when they had given their allegience (bay'ah) to him.  The Shi'a add this phrase as a reccommended but not obligatory part of the adhan, and if anyone says it in the adhan believing it is obligatory, his adhan will be void.




4-Crossing the Hands in Prayer (Takfir[168])


     The Messenger of Allah (pbuh&hf) has said: "Perform your prayers as you saw me performing my prayers."  Crossing the hands voids the prayers in the Imamiyyah school of thought since it deemed as the habit of the Magi.[169]  In the Hanafi and Shafi'i  schools, it is recommended (mustahhab) to cross the hands.  The Shafi'i school says to cross the right hand on top of the left above the belly, while the Hanafi says to hold the hands below the belly.




5-Concluding the Prayers with Three Takbirs ("Allahu Akbar!")


     The Messenger of Allah (pbuh&hf) used to conclude his prayers with three takbirs.  Imam Muslim narrates this fact on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas who says: "We knew that the Prophet (pbuh&hf) had concluded his prayers when he recited the three takbirat."[170]



6-Prostrating on Earth (turbah)


     Prostrating on earth (turbah) does not in any way imply worshipping the stone or earth which is being prostrated on.  As a practice, it has a firm foundation in the tradition of the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf) which the Holy Qur'an teaches the Muslims to follow in all aspects.  Imam Bukhari narrates that the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf) said: "I have been given five things which were not granted to anyone (any other prophet) before me: every apostle was sent particularly to his own people, whereas I have been sent to all people, red or black; the spoils of war have been made lawful for me, and these were never made lawful for anyone before me; the earth has been made pure and a place of prostration for me, so whenever the time of prayer comes for any one of you, he should pray wherever he is; I have been supported by awe (by which the enemy is overwhelmed) from the distance (which takes one month to cover); and I have been granted intercession."[171]  This narration very clearly says that the earth (the dust and the stones) is the place of prostration.  The history of Islam and the Holy Prophet Muhammad (pbuh&hf) shows that his mosque in Madinah was furnished only with dust although numerous types of rugs and furnishings existed at that time.  Because this mosque did not have a carpet or any other type of covering on the floor, when it rained, the floor of the mosque would turn into mud.  Still, the Muslims prostrated on the mud and did not put any carpets or rugs down.  Abu Sa'id al-Khidri, a companion of the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf), reports: "I saw with my own eyes  the Messenger of Allah (pbuh&hf) and on his nose were traces of the rain and mud."  Imam Bukhari narrates that the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf), when he used to do the prayers in his own room, would pray on "khumra" (a solid piece of dirt or a piece of straw): "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh&hf) performed prayer and I (one of the wives of the Holy Prophet) lay opposite to him while I was in menses.  Sometimes his clothes touched me when he prostrated, and he used to prostrate on khumra."[172]  Another of the wives of the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf) narrates: "I never saw the Prophet (while prostrating) preventing his face from touching the earth."[173]  Moreover, Wa'il, one of the Prophet's companions, narrates: "I saw (that) the Prophet (pbuh&hf), once he prostrated, touched his forehead and nose on the earth."[174]  Other narrations say that the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf) prohibited the Muslims from prostrating on materials other than the earth.  One day he (pbuh&hf) saw a man prostrating on some cloth from his turban.  The Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf) pointed to him and told him to remove his turban and to touch his actual forehead to the ground.[175]  Despite the immense heat of the ground, the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf) and his companions used to prostrate on it.  A great companion of the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf), Jabbir ibn 'Abdullah al-Ansari, says: "I used to pray the noon prayers with the Messenger of Allah (pbuh&hf), and I used to take a bunch of pebbles in my palm to cool them because of the enormous heat so I could prostrate on them."[176]  Another companion of the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf), Anas ibn Malik, narrates: "We used to pray with the Messenger of Allah (pbuh&hf) during the enormous heat, and one of us would take the pebbles in his hand and, once they were cooled, put them down and prostrate on them."[177]  Al-Khabbab ibn al-Arth, another companion of the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf), says: "We complained to the Messenger of Allah (pbuh&hf) about the intensity of the heat of the ground and its effects on our foreheads and palms (during prostration), and the Prophet (pbuh&hf) did not excuse us from praying on the ground."[178]  Abu Ubaidah, also a companion of the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf), narrates that the companion Ibn Mas'ud never prostrated except on the earth[179], while the companion 'Ibada ibn al-Samit has been narrated to have pushed back his turban to allow his forehead to touch the ground. [180]


     During the times of the first, second, third, and fourth caliphs, the Muslims used to prostrate on the dust; Abu Umayyah narrates that the first caliph, Abu Bakr, used to prostrate and pray on the earth.[181]  Prostrating on the earth was also the habit of the tabi'in (those who did not see the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf) but met his companions).  Masruq ibn al-Ajda', a prominent tabi'i and a faithful jurist and a student of 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud, made for himself a tablet of the dirt of Madinah and used it to prostrate on, taking it with him on his trips especially when he boarded ships.[182]  The people closest to the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf), the ahl al-bayt (pbut), were also very firm in their practice of prostrating on the earth and, in doing so, were following the tradition of their grandfather, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh&hf).  Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (pbuh), the sixth imam of the school of ahl al-bayt, says: "Prostration is not permitted except on the earth and whatever grows from it except on those things that are eaten or on cotton."[183]  When he was asked whether having one's turban touch the earth instead of the forehead was acceptable, he replied that this was not sufficeint unless the forehead actually touched the earth.[184]  His companion and student, Hisham ibn al-Hakam, asked him whether all seven positions (forehead, hands, knees, and toes) needed to touch the earth during prostration, and Imam Sadiq (pbuh) replied that as long as the forehead touched the earth, there was no need for the other six areas to touch the earth as well.  Thus, people can use carpets or prayer rugs to pray on as long as the forehead itself touches the earth.  However, prostrating by putting the forehead on a piece of cloth, carpet, nylon, sheet, wool, or anything else that is not a product of the earth (excepting items which are eaten or worn and on which prostration is not permissible) is not considered prostrating on the earth.


     Besides the issue of validity of prostration, prostrating on the earth has very significant indications and lessons for the believer.  Prostrating itself is a gesture of humiliation and insignificance before the Almighty, and if it is done on the dirt, it will have more effect than, say, prostrating on carpets.  The Messenger of Allah (pbuh&hf) says: "Make your faces dusty, and cover your noses with dust."[185]  When Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (pbuh) was asked about the philosophy behind prostrating on the earth, he said: "Because prostration is surrendering and humiliation to the Almighty.  Therefore, it shouldn't be on what is worn and eaten because people are slaves of what they eat and wear, and prostration is worshipping of Allah, so one should not put his forehead during prostration on that which is worshipped by the people (food and clothing) and that which conceits people."[186] 


     However, every rule has its exception.  Certain narrations allow people in times of emergency - such as imprisonment or being in a place (e.g. a ship, an airplane) in which neither the earth nor a piece of wood or leaf or paper is available to prostrate on - so in these cases, people can prostrate either on the hem of their clothing or else on carpet, for the Messenger of Allah (pbuh&hf) has said: "Nothing has been forbidden to man except that Allah permits it for whoever is compelled (in times of emergency)."



7-Why Pray on the Soil of Karbala?


     The followers of the ahl al-bayt (pbut) prefer to prostrate on the earth of Karbala which holds the memory of the great sacrifice of Imam Husayn (pbuh).  They do not cherish the physical soil so much as the principles of Imam Husayn (pbuh) and his great revolution which saved Islam from corruption, deterioration, and the tyranny of the wrongdoers.  Many imams from the school of ahl al-bayt have narrated that prostrating on the soil of Karbala penetrates the seven veils separating the person praying from Allah the Exalted.


     Conventional wisdom also determines that some lands are better than others; this fact is normal and rational and has been agreed upon by all nations, governments, authorities, and religions.  Such is the case with places and buildings related to Almighty Allah.  They enjoy a special status whose injunctions, rights, and obligations are sanctioned and safeguarded.  For example, the Ka'bah has an injunction of its own, as does the Mosque of the Prophet in Madinah.  The land of Karbala is similar, for the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf) has been recorded to have taken the soil from it, smelled it, and kissed it.  The wife of the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf), Um Salamah, also took a piece of the soil of Karbala in her clothes.  The Messenger of Allah (pbuh&hf) has been narrated to have told Um Salamah: "Jibrail has come to me and informed me that some of my nation will assassinate my son Husayn in Iraq, and he brought me a piece of that soil."  He gave that piece of soil to his wife and said: "When it is turned into fresh blood, then you will know that my son Husayn has been murdered."  Um Salamah took the soil and put it in a bottle.  When Imam Husayn (pbuh) left for Iraq in 61 h., she checked the bottle every day.  One day, she came to the bottle and saw that the dust had turned into fresh blood, so she started screaming.  The women of Bani Hashim gathered around her and asked what was wrong; she told them that Husayn had been killed.  When they asked her how she knew, she narrated the story, and they joined her in lamentation and crying for Imam Husayn (pbuh). [187]


     A man from Bani Asad who smelled the soil where Imam Husayn (pbuh) was buried cried.  Hisham ibn Muhammad has said: "When water was released to overwhelm and obliterate the grave of Husayn, it dried after forty days, and the grave was completely left without any trace.  A bedouin from Bani Asad came and sampled the soil, one handful after another, smelling it each time, until he was able to identify the grave of Husayn, whereupon he wept and said: "May my parents be sacrificed for you!  How sweet you smelled when you were alive, and how sweet your soil smells when you are dead!"  Then he wept again and composed this verse:


            Out of enmity they wanted to obliterate his grave,

            But the good smell of the soil led to the grave.[188]


     The first to prostrate on the soil of Karbala where Imam Husayn (pbuh) was beheaded and buried was his son 'Ali ibn al-Husayn Zayn al-Abidin (pbuh), the fourth imam of the school of ahl al-bayt and the great-grandson of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh&hf).  Immediately after he buried his father in Karbala, he took a handful of soil and made the earth solid and used it to prostrate on.  After him, his son Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (pbuh) and his grandson Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (pbuh) did the same.  Imam Zayn al-Abidin (pbuh) and Imam Sadiq (pbuh) made prayer beads from the burial dust of Imam Husayn (pbuh), and Imam Sadiq (pbuh) narrates that the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh&hf), Lady Fatima al-Zahra' (pbuh), used to carry prayer beads made from twisted wooden threads with which she would praise and glorify Allah the Exalted.  But after Hamzah ibn 'Abd al-Mutalib was killed in the Battle of Uhud, she took the soil from his grave and made prayer beads from it and used them to glorify Allah.  People learned her habit and did the same when Imam Husayn (pbuh) was martyred, taking the soil of his grave and using it to make prayer beads.



8-Prayers for the Dead (Salat al-Mayyit)


     During the time of the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf), the prayers over the newly deceased had five takbirs (units).  Ahmad ibn Hanbal narrates from 'Abd al-A'la: "I prayed behind Zayd ibn Arqam over a dead body, and I did the takbirat five times."  A man stood behind him and held his hand and asked whether he had forgotten.  'Abd al-A'la replied: "No, but I prayed behind Abul-Qasim Muhammad (pbuh&hf), and he did five takbirat, and I would not do other than that."[189] Al-Suyuti mentions the name of the companion who changed the number of takbirs from five to four.[190] 


9-Tarawih Prayers


     Imam Bukhari narrates from 'Abdullah ibn 'Abd al-Qari: "In one of the nights of the month of Ramadan, I went to the mosque with 'Umar ibn al-Khattab.  We saw the people in scattered groups, with individuals praying by themselves.  Others were praying with a group praying behind them.  'Umar looked at me and said, 'In my opnion, if I can bring all these people together, behind one reciter, it would be better.'  So he gathered them and made 'Ubay ibn Ka'ab lead them in prayers.  So I went with him another night to the mosque, and saw people all praying together behind the reciter.  'Umar looked at them and said, 'Ni'mat al-bid'ah hadhihi'  ('This is a good innovation')."[191]  In the Shi'a tradition, the recommended prayers (al-nawafil) during the month of Ramadhan are performed individually.






[145] Qur'an 5:6

[146] Wudhu' al-Nabi, al-Shahrastani

[147] Qur'an 4:59

[148] Sahih al-Bukhari, 1:52; Sahih Muslim, 1:204

[149] Kanz al-'Ummal, al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, 9:443, hadith #26890

[150] Sahih Muslim, 1:207 - 8

[151] Kanz al-'Ummal, al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, 9:423, hadith #26797

[152] Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, Ibn Abi al-Hadid, 1:199-200

[153] Tarikh, al-Tabari, 4:339

[154] Al-Musannath, Abu Shaybah, 1:30 #6; Sunan Abi Dawud, 1:42 #164

[155] Qur'an 17:78

[156] Tafsir, 5:428

[157] Qur'an 11:114

[158] Qur'an 50:39-40

[159] Sahih Bukhari, Book on Times of Prayers, hadith #510, #529; Book on Friday Prayer, hadith #1103; Sahih Muslim, Book on the Prayer of Travellers hadith #1146; al-Tirmidhi, Book on Prayer hadith #172; al-Nisa'i, Book on Timings, hadith #585, #597, #598, #599; Abu Dawud, Book on Prayer, hadith #1024, #1025, #1027; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, 1:217, 221, 223, 251, 273, 283, 285, 346, 349, 351, 354, 360, 366; Malik, Book on Shortening the Prayer While Travelling, hadith #300

[160] Sahih Muslim, Book of the Prayers of Travellers, ch. 6 #50-54

[161] Sahih Muslim, ch. 6-8, #58-62

[162] Kanz al-Ummal, al-Muttaqi al-Hindi,vol. 6 hadith #397; al-Mustadrak, al-Hakim, 3:171

[163] Sahih Muslim, 1:48

[164] al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, 4:56

[165] Sharh al-Tajrid, Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal 1:49

[166] Malik ibn Anas, Kitab al-Muwatta', Chapter of the Adhan

[167] Sunan al-Tirmidhi, 1:64

[168] Takfir comes from the Arabic word for "covering," and since crossing the hands covers part of the chest it is called takfir.

[169] al-Kafi, al-Kulayni, 3:336; al-Ta'dhib, al-Tusi, 2:84 and 2:309

[170] Sahih Muslim, 1:219

[171] Sahih Bukhari, Book on Making Ablutions with Sand or Earth, hadith #323; Prayer hadith #419; The Prescribed Fifth Portion hadith #2890; Sahih Muslim, Book on Mosques and Places of Performing Prayers hadith #810; al-Nisa'i, Book on Washing and the Dry Ablution,  hadith #429; Mosques, hadith #728; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, 3:305; al-Darami, Book on Prayer, hadith #1353

[172] Sahih Bukhari, Book on Menstruation, hadith #321; Book on Prayer hadith #366, #487, #488; Sahih Muslim, Book on Prayer, hadith #797; al-Nisa'i, Book on Mosques, hadith #730; Abu Dawud, Book on Prayer, hadith #560; ibn Majah, Book on Immediate Call for Prayer, hadith #1018; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal 6:330, 331, 335, 336; al-Darami, Book on Prayer, hadith #1338

[173] Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, 6:58; Kanz al-Ummal, al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, 4:212

[174] Ahkam al-Quran, al-Jassan, 3:36; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, 4:315

[175] Sunan al-Bayhaqi, 2:105; al-Isabah li Ma'rifat al-Sahabah, ibn Hajar, 2:201

[176] Sahih al-Nisa'i, 2:204; sunan al-Bayhaqi, 1:439; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, 3:327

[177] Sunan al-Bayhaqi, 2:105; Nayl al-Awtar, 2:268

[178] Sunan al-Bayhaqi, 2:106

[179] Majma'  al-Zawa'id, 2:57

[180] Sunan al-Kubra, al-Bayhaqi, 2:105

[181] Kanz al-Ummal, al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, 4:212; Sunan al-Kubra, al-Bayhaqi, vol. 2

[182] al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, ibn Sa'ad, 6:53

[183] Wasa'il al-Shi'ah, 3:592

[184] ibid.

[185] Targhib wal-Tarhib, 1:581

[186] Wasa'il al-Shi'ah, 3:591

[187] al-Khasa'is, al-Suyuti al-Shafi'i, 2:125; al-Manaqib, al-Maghazali, p. 313; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, 6:294; Tarikh al-Islam, al-Dimishqi, 3:11; al-Bidayah wal-Nihayah, 6:230; al-'Aqd al-Farid, ibn 'Abd Rabbah, 2:219; Kanz al-Ummal, al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, 5:110

[188] Tarikh ibn Asakir, 4:342; al-Kifayah, Hafiz al-Kanji, p. 293

[189] Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, 4:370; Sahih Muslim, Chapter of the Prayers over the Graves; Sahih al-Nisa'i, Kitab al-Janazah

[190] al-Kamil, Suyuti, 15:29; Tarikh al-Khulafa', Suyuti, p. 137

[191] Sahih Bukhari, 1:342